“Ovaria” redirects here. This is also a proposed Solanum.
Blood supply of the human female reproductive organs. The left ovary is visible above the label “ovarian arteries”.
Latin ovarium
Gray’s subject #266 1254
Artery uterine artery
Vein ovarian vein
Nerve ovarian plexus
Lymph Paraaortic lymph node
MeSH Ovary
Dorlands/Elsevier Ovary

The ovary is an endocrine glands.


[edit] Human anatomy

The ovary (for a given side) is located in the lateral wall of the pelvis in a region called the internal iliac artery.

The ovaries are not attached to the ovarian ligaments. Usually each ovary takes turns releasing eggs every month; however, if there was a case where one ovary was absent or dysfunctional then the other ovary would continue providing eggs to be released.


[edit] Hormones

Ovaries secrete both endometrium.

[edit] Ligaments

In the human the paired ovaries lie within the pelvic cavity, on either side of the uterus, to which they are attached via a fibrous cord called the mesovarium. Thus, the ovary is the only organ in the human body which is totally invaginated into the peritonium, making it the only intraperitoneal organ (not to be confused with interperitoneal).


[edit] Extremities

There are two extremities to the ovary:

  • The end to which the uterine tube attaches is called the tubal extremity.
  • The other extremity is called the uterine extremity. It points downward, and it is attached to the uterus via the ovarian ligament.

[edit] Histology

[edit] Cell types

  • Follicular cells flat epithelial cells that originate from surface epithelium covering the ovary
  • Granulosa cells – surrounding follicular cells have changed from flat to cuboidal and proliferated to produce a stratified epithelium
  • Gametes[1]

Section of the ovary of a newly born child. Germinal epithelium is seen at top. Primitive ova are seen in their ovarian follicle is also seen. Formation of about 30 primordial follicles in the ovarian cortex region during 5-7 month of embryonic development.

  • The outermost layer is called the ovarian surface epithelium (previously known as the germinal epithelium).
  • The tunica albuginea covers the cortex.
  • The ovarian corpus luteum derived from the follicles.
  • The innermost layer is the ovarian medulla. It can be hard to distinguish between the cortex and medulla, but follicles are usually not found in the medulla.

[edit] In other animals

Ovaries of some kind are found in the female reproductive system of many animals that employ sexual reproduction, including invertebrates. However, they develop in a very different way in most invertebrates than they do in vertebrates, and are not truly homologous.[2]

Many of the features found in human ovaries are common to all vertebrates, including the presence of follicular cells, tunica albuginea, and so on. However, many species produce a far greater number of eggs during their lifetime than do humans, so that, in fish and amphibians, there may be hundreds, or even millions of fertile eggs present in the ovary at any given time. In these species, fresh eggs may be developing from the germinal epithelium throughout life. Corpora lutea are found only in mammals, and in some elasmobranch fish; in other species, the remnants of the follicle are quickly resorbed by the ovary. In birds, reptiles, and monotremes, the egg is relatively large, filling the follicle, and distorting the shape of the ovary at maturity.[2]

Amphibians and reptiles have no ovarian medulla; the central part of the ovary is a hollow, lymph-filled space. The ovary of teleosts is also often hollow, but in this case, the eggs are shed into the cavity, which opens into the oviduct.[2]

Although most normal female vertebrates have two ovaries, this is not the case in all species. In most birds and in [2]

[edit] Cryopreservation


[edit] Diseases

reproductive system.

If the egg fails to release from the follicle in the ovary an polycystic ovary syndrome), which inhibits the follicles to grow normally and this will cause cycle irregularities.

Other conditions include:

[edit] Additional Images

[edit] See also

[edit] References

  1. ^ Langman’s Medical Embryology, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 10th ed, 2006
  2. ^ 0-03-910284-X.
  3. ^ Fitzpatrick, F. L. 1934. Unilateral and bilateral ovaries in raptorial birds. The Wilson Bulletin 46 (1): 19-22.
  4. ^ Kinsky, F. C. 1971. The consistent presence of paired ovaries in the Kiwi(Apteryx) with some discussion of this condition in other birds. Journal of Ornithology 112 (3): 334–357.
  5. 19439559.
  6. ^ 19013568.
  7. ^ Livebirth after orthotopic transplantation of cryopreserved ovarian tissue The Lancet, Sep 24, 2004
  8. 19108826.

[edit] External links

This article uses material from the Wikipedia article Ovary, which is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.